RESEARCH PROJECTS

At present ZRS Koper acts as leading or partner organisation in 15 national research projects, obtained via application to various public calls for the (co-)financing of research projects by Slovenian Research Agency.

ONGOING RESEARCH PROJECTS

Decomposition of skeletal muscle tensiomyogram with identification of contractile parameters for sensitive monitoring of muscle adaptation (L7-9421)

Skeletal muscle’s intrinsic contractile properties are assessed using dynamometer, attached distally from observed joint, although science a long time ago brought-up several issues that diminishes the quality of the interpretation of such approach. In 1980s an alternative approaches for detection of more intrinsic contractile properties were developed and were named by the nature of the sensor: phono/soundmyography, as they use microphones to detect muscle sound; vibromyography uses accelerometers and laser beams to detect thickening and vibration of a muscle belly. All those methods aimed to assess muscle contraction directly on the muscle belly and not as dynamometry.

Slovenia played a marginal role in this quest with a Tensiomyography (TMG) that detects skeletal muscle belly thickening during twitch isometric contraction selectively and non-invasively. Since the first TMG publication back in 1990 already 107 SCI publications arose with an exponential trend. TMG allows high signal-to-noise ratio, high sensitivity and no need for post-processing of the signals. Immediately we found high correlation between myosin heavy chain I and TMG derived contractile parameters.

The TMG method is generally accepted; however, it needs more basic investigation to understand the signal’s parameters, signal pathways and mechanisms for a high quality of interpretation. There are several issues that needs to be investigated. Therefore, the aim of this project is to design a TMG decomposition model to different motor unit phenotypes for better understanding of mechanisms of contraction and the effects of other factors, such are: muscle size and architecture, muscle composition, muscle fluid content, muscle fibre mechanics and geometry (cross sectional area, velocity of contraction, force, tension), adhesive tissues (costameres, tendons), fatigue/potentiation.

Firstly we will upgrade equipment in a specialised laboratory to detect high-speed muscle fibre dynamics of geometry changes during contractions (shortening, thickening). This will give us a new approach to detect intrinsic contractile properties of single fibres and they will be used in construction of TMG decomposition model, which will be upgraded until the certain accuracy and complexity. Finally the model will be cross-validated and applied in four studies.

In a fatigue study we will test decomposition for sensitivity to assess muscle contractile properties changes as a result of different fatigue types affecting motor units. Similar will be done in acute and chronic adaptation study to 8-weeks of plyometric exercise. Within the atrophy study we will test TMG and decomposition to be sensitive for early detection of atrophic processes after inactivity, as we know in certain populations atrophy is rarely reversible (this study will be co-financed by Italian Space Agency in 2019). Similarly, we will validate decomposition results to classification of sarcopenia, as there is EU consensus set for sarcopenia classification but evidence is that there is almost no agreement in different methods for sarcopenia classification.

TMG decomposition is surely necessary for further method’s development to assure more accurate understanding of the signal and better interpretation of the results. However, this is possible only with invasive procedures, where this research team has vast experience, as lot of our publications comes from the analysis of muscle samples.

 

ARRS CodeL7-9421

Period: 1. 7. 2018 – 30. 6. 2021

HeadBoštjan Šimunič, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating InstituteInstitute for Kinesiology Research

The effect of variable load exercise on skeletal muscles in elderly: a randomised cross-over study (Z7-9420)

Human aging is characterized by an accelerated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, which leads to a reduced functional capacity and an increased likelihood of falling and frailty. Subsequently, the development of these detrimental changes results in a loss of independence and reduction in the quality of life in elderly. This is also true at both the individual and societal level, as increasing financial demands on the healthcare system may compromise its capacity to cope with the aforementioned issues in the future. Muscle wasting is a result of mainly loss of fast twitch motor units, where males loose about 30% until the age of 80 years while females about 15%. However, both sexes lose 85% of muscle power in the same age span. It seems that existing training regimes are not appropriate for the maintenance of muscle function and sustainable quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is identified as an appropriate training for maintaining muscle mass and function; however recently higher intensities (e.g. power or high-velocity trainings) are recommended for activation of fast twitch motor units and fall prevention. Although power training could be implemented in older the doubt in safety of such exercises remains. We have co-developed a new of robotic exercise machine where exercise load and velocity could be regulated to such a measure that safety could be met. Thus, the aim of this research proposal is to examine whether a novel Kineo variable load RT program is capable to tackle excessive aging muscle atrophy and contractile capacity decline. Secondly, we plan to examine whether these potential gains in muscle mass and power could be translated into functional capacity improvement in elderly.

Current data suggest a dramatic loss in type II fibers with aging, and it is well established that this fiber type activation plays a vital role in the rapid force production capacity which is important to counter the unexpected perturbations during walking and aid in avoiding falls. Thus, RT strategies are outlined as a viable tool to tackle age-related degenerative changes in muscle function and force production. The underlying assumption here is that the classical RT would be translated into a greater muscle strength output, improve balance and lower the likelihood of frailty in elderly. However, this has been challenged recently. Walker and co-workers (2015, 2017) suggested for 8-12 week exposure to moderate load RT as ineffective to enhance either power or functional capacity of lower limb muscles in elderly. Thus, there is a crucial need to revisit current RT strategies and design novel protocols to counter the detrimental effects of aging, since this bears strong impact on quality of life may lead to muscle function rejuvenating. Accordingly, we propose a novel variable RT, conducted on Kineo dynamometry machine. We hypothesize that this variable RT will be a viable tool to tackle aging muscle atrophy, presumably via additional type II muscle fiber recruitment. This would than govern the current fall prevention strategies and improve functional capacity in elderly.

We plan to recruit volunteers (age >65) from the Primorska region. Prior to any data collection they will undergo a general health examination. Exclusion and inclusion criteria will be applied and those applicants remaining will be allocated into three groups (variable RT, classical RT and controls), in a randomized counter balance crossover, with a 2x washout period. All participants will be submitted to 8 consecutive weeks of training protocols. Data collection will be carried out on 11 separate occasions, including familiarization, pilot testing, and main portion data collection. We plan assess muscle power, contractility, architecture, functional capacity, blood markers and oxygen uptake via pre/post measurements and a follow-up preceding each condition.

We plan to use novel instrumentation in attempt to tackle aging muscle atrophy and function. Based on the findings, we could develop safety guidelines and protocols aimed at reducing health risks in this aging population. In case our hypotheses are confirmed, we may offer important information to the healthcare system, especially for reducing economic burden.

 

ARRS CodeZ7-9420

Period: 1. 7. 2018 – 30. 6. 2020

HeadDamir Zubac, PhD, Assistant with Doctorate

Participating InstituteInstitute for Kinesiology Research

Interreligious dialogue – a Basis for Coexisting Diversity in the Light of Migration and the Refugee Crisis (J6-9393)

This project deals with the question of the importance of cultivation of an active, sincere interreligious dialogue, in the context of contemporary migrations, that recognizes and breaks down negative stereotypes and prejudices, raises the level of tolerance, respect and strengthens mutual understanding both in the everyday life of individuals of different religions and spiritualities as well as at the hierarchical institutional religious levels. The main goal of the project is (based on a critical evaluation, through theological comparative analysis) the search for new paradigms, models and possibilities for the interreligious dialogue, defined by the specifics of the Slovene and Bosnian space, and the connection of these insights with a new ethics of religious peace-building in the light of mutual interdependence and cohesion, and rethinking the role of moral and intellectual virtues, communication, and the importance of inclusion of women’s voices in the framework of the interreligious dialogue.

 

ARRS Code: J6-9393

Period: 01. 07. 2018 – 30. 06. 2021

Project leader: Nadja Furlan Štante, PhD, Senior Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS Koper: Institute for Philosophical Studies

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Antifascism in the Julian March in a Transnational Perspective, 1919–1954 (J5-9356)

The project “Antifascism in the Julian March in a Transnational Perspective, 1919–1954” will examine the special characteristics and lesser known aspects of the antifascist resistance in the former Julian March, and its role in the wider European context. The research will focus on the phenomenon of antifascism as it developed in response to the “borderland fascism” (fascismo di confine) characteristic of this multiethnic border region, and take into consideration the period spanning from the emergence of fascism in Italy (1919) to the division of the Free Territory of Trieste between Italy and Yugoslavia (1954).

The objectives of the proposed project are: 1) analysis of ideological, social and national premises of antifascism in the former Julian March; 2) research into antifascist groups and movements of various ideological-political provenances, and analysis of various practices of their antifascist engagement from theoretical, artistic, and political, to intelligence and terrorist activities, as well as organized armed resistance; 3) research into interactions between local antifascist groups, their connections with other antifascist movements and organizations in Europe, and international transfers of ideas and tactics; 4) analysis of women’s emancipation within the antifascist movement; 5) analysis of antifascist symbols and discourse employed in fine arts and literature; and 6) research into the formation of collective memory of antifascism along the Yugoslav-Italian border after WWII.

Special emphasis will be paid to Slovenian antifascist groups and individuals whose engagement was characterized by transnational cooperation in the Italian and wider European context. Due to the interactions between the national impulse and forms of action with different ideological backgrounds, as well as the earliness of spontaneous resistance and its international character, the antifascism in the Julian March was characterized by a dimension that can be best approached through methods of transnational and comparative history. Applying these approaches, the project will introduce recent methodological tools and problematize new historical aspects of this borderland region. Such an approach will enable participating researchers to enter more actively into dialogue with the international historiographical community, which has in recent years shown an increasing interest in researching antifascism, and stressed the importance of research into political and cultural aspects of antifascism in various European regions with common or similar features.

Taking into account the findings of previous studies by Slovenian, Croatian, Italian, and other scholars, the proposed research will be based on archival and other historical sources. The key archival holdings for the proposed project, which have already been partially researched or at least registered by the project leader and members of the project group, are kept by the various Slovenian, Croatian, Serbian and Italian archives or private collections, while contacts with foreign agents will be analyzed on the basis of the documents kept by Russian, British, Vatican, and other archives, which have also been partly registered by the participating researchers.

The feasibility of the project is ensured by the project leader’s ample knowledge and years of experience, as well as by previous successful collaboration of the participating researchers in several projects. In order to achieve the set goals, the project will be divided into several interrelated sections, with the segments being in line with research interests of the project team composed of experienced scholars, as well as younger researchers at the beginning of their academic career.

 

ARRS CodeJ5-9356

Period: 1. 7. 2018 – 30. 6. 2021

Project leader: Acad. Jože Pirjevec, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS Koper: ZRS Koper, Institute for Historical Studies

The engagement between Marxism and Christianity in Slovenia, 1931–1991 (J5-9353)

Our investigation follows this entwinement between left-oriented Catholicism and Marxism in Slovenia from the 1930s, when a group of Christian Socialists separated from the mainstream spirit of Christian integrism and drew increasingly closer to the ideological premises of Marxism, to the early 1990s, when socialism still appeared to some Catholics as the “sign of the times.” With the aim of carrying out a complex analysis of the phenomenon described, we will conduct the research using a transnational approach that will include the methods of intellectual, political and diplomatic histories, the sociology of religion, theology and the anthropology of religion.

Research project will produce a set of scientific outputs with the aim of launching an academic debate and engaging the public by achieving the following goals: 1) to contextualise and provide a novel epistemological insight into the intellectual achievements of left-oriented Slovene theology in the realm of global contemporary and current political theologies; 2) to offer a new perspective of the processes of intellectual transfer between Slovenia and various parts of Europe, the United States, South America and other regions of the world; 3) to compare visions and dilemmas of Slovene Christian Socialists with left-oriented Christian groups in Europe before, during and after WWII; 4) to provide a new angle on the problematic cooperation between Christians and Communists during WWII; 5) to explore the extent of the ideological and political impact of left-oriented Catholicism on the Yugoslav socialist self-management system and understand the significance of Yugoslavia for the Vatican’s “Ostpolitik”; 6) to provide insight into past and contemporary strands of political theological thinking in Slovenia and critically analyse the present so called “atheist turn” within this thought.

 

ARRS CodeJ5-9353

Period: 1. 7. 2018 – 30. 6. 2021

Project leaderJure Ramšak, PhD, Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS Koper: ZRS Koper, Institute for Historical Studies

Theory of Punishment and Democratic Culture in Slovenia (J5-9342)

The project is dedicated to the analysis, understanding and confronting with the defects in the Slovenian democratic culture, which are manifested on the field of criminal policy. In the first place, the project approaches the genealogy of disorientation on this horizon. It finds it in the spiritual dynamics of the entire post-war Europe, marked by the competition between two pretenders for the superior social order, and in the geographical position of Slovenia, resulting in its exceptional competitiveness in relation to the West. And precisely in the case of criminal policy, the opportunity offered to Slovenia to create a system that would appear superior not only by the socialist criteria, but also by the advanced standards that were developed in the West. The aim of the project is to affirm a democratic culture through the legitimation of penalty. The punishment is a phenomenon that at first glance represents a counterpoint to a modern state, whose outmost concerns are the welfare, security and affirmation of the individuals. If we prove the legitimacy of democratic culture on the level of penalty, it is consequently proved through its entire organism.

 

ARRS CodeJ5-9342

Period: 1. 7. 2018 – 30. 6. 2021

HeadRok Svetlič, PhD

Lead Organisation: ZRS Koper, Law institute

Slovenian Neighbouring Countries as the Content of the Curriculum of Primary and Secondary Schools in Slovenia (V5-1709)

The aim of the research project “Slovenian Neighbouring Countries as the Content of the Curriculum of Primary and Secondary Schools in Slovenia” is to present an analytical overview of how Slovene minority language communities settled along the Italian, Croatian and Hungarian neighbouring border areas are treated and presented through the prism of content defined by curricula in primary and secondary schools with respectively Slovene, Italian and Hungarian language. The findings of the research will introduce curricular renovation and implementation of changes in those primary and secondary schools curricula. In addition to the editing of the final proposal of curricular changes, the survey data of a sample made up both by school and the out-of-school population will analyse the knowledge about the Slovenian minority community and the views on the common Slovenian cultural space. Partners in the project (ZRS Koper, INV in Ljubljana and SLORI in Trieste) will collaborate in the implementation procedures further with the Office for Slovenians Abroad, the National Education Institute, the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, and cultural societies and organisations in the Slovenian minority environment.

 

ARRS CodeV5-1709

Period: 1. 4. 2018–30. 9. 2019

Project leaderMilan Bufon, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Head of the project: Science and Research Centre Koper

Participating institute of ZRS KoperInstitute for Social Studies

Reanimating Cosmic Justice: Poetics of the Feminine (J6-8265)

The project deals with a new interpretation of Antigone and her radical ethical act. In the first part of this project, Antigone is compared with Savitri from the Mahabharata and Mary as represented in contemporary feminist thinking and theology. They are be analysed as three guardians of sacred cosmic orders and orders of femininity and related to the logic of unwritten/cosmic/divine laws. The second part of the project is dealing with the new culture of shame and responsibility towards others as related to the divine, cosmic and unwritten ethical laws. These unconditional ethical demands are related and analyzed in relation to the notions of guilt and shame. In its third part the project ends with two case studies of extreme violence in the forgetting of “ethics of the face of the other” and shame in the selected contexts of East- and Southeast Asian cultures (Cambodia and China)

ARRS CodeJ6-8265

Period: 01. 05. 2017 – 30. 04. 2020

HeadLenart Škof, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating research instituteInstitute for Philosophical Studies

Web page

CoBLaLT – Contact Based(Neighbouring)Language Learning and Teaching (Z6-8257)

The project proposes an investigation into possible implementations of the doctoral study about the CoBLaLT Model (Contact Based Language Learning and Teaching) – which represents an innovative methodological framework for primary Neighbouring Language teaching and learning, based on social integrative principles and Network Based Language Teaching, which has its origins within the Doctoral research “Teaching and Learning Primary Neighbouring Languages through Cross-border Contacts” (Cavaion 2105).
Implementations regard intercultural awareness development, pupils’ level of integrativeness and interactional skills development within a view of intercultural and plurilingual education, very much advised from the Language Policy Division of the Council of Europe (SE, 2007). In fact, within our doctoral research we identified as a result that integrative motivation (Gardner, Lambert 1972) more than instrumental motivation needs to be developed in order to make CoBLaLT model an efficacious tool of European citizenship development.

Results of the research speak in favour of the model from the viewpoint of stimulated Willingness to Communicate (MacIntyre et al., 1998) among participant pupils (aged between 12 and 15 years) and increased desire to learn the language of the neighbour – one out of the three elements which make up Gardner’s concept of integrativeness (Gardner, Lambert, 1972; Gardner, 1985, 2001, 2005). Nevertheless the following critical points have been identified:

  • Not increased desire to meet and know “others”;
  • Little intercultural and metalinguistic reflection in class in terms of intentional preparation (Bennett,2009) and capability to transfer intercultural awareness into life (Čok, 2009);
  • Need to teach interactional skills as a systematic study of details of interaction to make communication less formulaic since the very early stage of language learning (Rivers, 1987, Young, 2011) and intercomprehension skills as a way to gain mutual understanding (Thije, Zeevaert, 2007).

Objectives:

  1. redefine tools and practice with a particular attention on implementations capable to bring improvement in terms of integrativeness (Gardner, Lambert, 1972) intercultural awareness and interactional skills development;
  2. assess and measure the above listed skills and awareness throughout the running of a new questionnaire about integrativeness (adapted from the Gardners’s one – Gardner, Lambert, 1972); the application of already existing scales “measuring” intercultural sensitiveness like the Hammer, Bennett and Wiseman’s Intercultural Developmental Inventory (IDI, Hammer, Bennett and Wiseman, 2003); qualitative observation and qualitative and/or quantitative analysis of interactional situations, like video calls or chat to check Interactional skills development;
  3. provide a teachers’ guide to the model by providing the CoBLaLT model – Guide for teachers and a final version of the Autobiography of cross border encounters with guidelines for pupils and teachers.

ARRS CodeZ6-8257

Period: 1. 7. 2017 – 30. 06. 2019

Project leaderIrina Moira Cavaion, PhD, Assistant with Doctorate

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Linguistic Studies

Web page

The development of sport injury model for effective prevention, diagnostics and rehabilitation (L5-8245)

Injuries regularly accompany sports on all levels and to a great extent determine the successes or sports career and life of active athletes. Epidemiological data and data on the success rate of rehabilitation or return to sport are extremely difficult to compare, mostly due to non-harmonisation of definitions. However, we can conclude with great certainty that the incidence of sport injuries is increases and that some sports are more exposed to injuries (football, hockey, gymnastics) than others. Not only the results of athletes and their teams are connected to sport injuries, but also their long-term health, quality of life, socio-economic status and consequently, the general financial burden on the society.

With collaboration with Slovenian Olympic Committee, we will develop a standardised information system for registering readiness of athletes and their sport injuries. During the project period, we will do so for 5 sports (football, basketball, handball, skiing, and gymnastics). Furthermore, we will design a methodology for assessment of sport injuries for the purpose of out aims. However, the information system will be available also to scientists and expert from different fields (epidemiologists, doctors, kinesiologists, dietitians etc.) for safe and ethically acceptable access to data with the goals to discovering new knowledge, risk factors, international comparability and transfer of best practices.

 

ARRS CodeL5-8245

Period: 1. 5. 2017 – 30. 4. 2020

HeadRado Pišot, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating InstituteInstitute for Kinesiology Research

Utilization of olive growing by-products (V4-1621)

In Slovenia, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food, 2000 hectares are covered with olive groves, in the register of agricultural holdings there are 2000 olive producers and there are 39 registered olive mills. In recent years, a big increase of the area covered by the olive orchards and number of registered olive growers and millers has occurred. The processing technology has changed dramatically as well and all these facts have a strong impact on the quantity and composition of the remains of processing. Therefore – in line with the planned strategy of oliveculture – a very strong need for an integrated approach of solving the issue of remains from the processing of olives in the olive growing, has formed, and it will have to take into account technological and regulatory changes in this area.

Slovenian olive oil producers and millers are faced with huge problems of further use of remains in olive production. Slovenian legislation interprets remains from the processing of olives as waste, because there (still) do not exist prepared expert bases for the strategic arrangement of the field and recommendations, which would be in accordance with the Regulation on waste. In resolving these discrepancies new technologies, the specifics of Slovenian olive growing, and statutory environmental constraints will have to be considered.

Olive and olive oil production generate large amounts of waste biomass (olive leaves, olive pomace), which deferred to the environment represent an environmental problem, but on the other hand it can also be utilized. Known are different deployment strategies of the remains, including the generation of renewable energy by incineration.

New modern technologies are based on reducing the use of additional water with the use of two-phase decanters, yielding the two products from the mills: oil and wet cake.

It is estimated that half of Slovenian olive oil production already utilizes new technology; therefore, it is of utmost importance to explore new opportunities for the utilization of remains from the processing of olive growing.

The project will prepare necessary background and recommendations, which will prescribe the utilization and the sustainable management of remains from processing of olives, taking into account new technologies, increased quantities of remains, environmental requirements and new scientific knowledge in this area.

Available relevant literature and legislation from the field of the remains in olive growing and the present situation in the field will be inventoried and the composition and nutritional value of remains will be determined.

 

ARRS CodeV4-1621

Period: 1. 10. 2016 – 30. 09. 2019

Project leaderBojan Butinar, PhD, Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Oliveculture

East Asian Collections in Slovenia: Inclusion of Slovenia in the global exchanges of objects and ideas with East Asia (J6-9429)

The project will for the first time explore and make a comprehensive study of the art objects from East Asia that are stored in various Slovenian museums. While some of these collections have been the subject of research in recent years, a comprehensive, in-depth study has yet to be undertaken. With only a few minor exceptions, the vast majority of these objects are stored in museum depositories, and some signs of deterioration and damage are already evident due to the lack of specific knowledge and thus of improper storage and treatment. In some cases, the existing identification and categorization has also been proven to be incorrect. The project within its scope covers content which had previously not been researched in Slovenia. For the first time we have the opportunity to work with a team of highly qualified experts, which will be able to perform, in cooperation with curators and museums, a quality and top-level research study.

The project is conceived as a response to the challenge of situating the history of the collecting of East Asian objects and of their cultural connotations in the global context, deriving from the paradoxical assumption of the (dis)connection between materiality and cultural connotation. Through the analysis of East Asian collections kept in various museums in Slovenia, this project will examine and reconstruct intercultural relations between the Slovenia and East Asia. It will also critically reappraise the cultural conditionality of so-called East Asian objects in the global history of collecting and make a major contribution to the re-examination of the existing museum taxonomy. Indirectly, the project will thus encourage a different understanding of the binary relationships of the East and West, especially with respect to the Eurocentric frameworks and colonial categories of collecting practices. In addition, the research will also shed light on the particular position of Slovenia within the history of Euro-Asian collectionist connections. Whether we study curiosity collections, collections made by travellers and missionaries or collections of diplomatic gifts, studying their history can enable us to assess the peripheral character of Slovenia in relation to the centres of precolonial, colonial and postcolonial centres of power. In the context of Foucault or Said that special position might also mean that the orientalist-type knowledge production is formed in more complex circumstances and therefore displays different characteristics. We will try to explore this theoretical premise by exploring the history of the representations of East Asia in Slovenian collections.

It is necessary to emphasize that the project will focus on the specifics of the Slovenian cultural and socio-political context for the first time, thus opening up new research opportunities in the previously neglected area. This, in turn, will lead to a re-evaluation of Eurocentric frames and colonial categories of collector practices. In the scope of the proposed project the analyses of collections of East Asian origin will be based on the well-established theories regarding the interpretative nature of objects, deriving from their interdependent relations with human beings. The research will thus undoubtedly fill in relevant gaps in the European global collecting history, which will further contribute to the re-evaluation of established prevailing tendencies in the European collecting history of »East Asian objects«.

After one hundred years of keeping East Asia-related items in museum depositories, it is therefore essential to place the processing of these items within the national framework for the protection of cultural heritage. This would not only contribute to the protection of cultural heritage, but also create the basic foundation for further forms of conservation and restoration. If not, this heritage will continue to dwell in depositories and live dormant lives, where its life-span will surely shorten significantly.

 

ARRS CodeJ6-9429

Period: 1. 7. 2018 – 30. 6. 2021

Project leader: Vampelj Suhadolnik Nataša, PhD

Lead partner of the projectUniversity of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Philosophical Studies

National Self-Assertion Versus Transnational Scholarship: the Impact of National Discourses on the Medieval and Early Modern Art History in Slovenia (J6-9387)

Within the context of increasing national self-awareness in the late 19th century, the Slovenians, like other nations living in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, began to search for elements that could be understood as part of their national identity in the field of humanities, as well as in arts and architecture. Around 1900 first attempts of creating a national style in art and architecture can be noted. Moreover, some of the younger painters emphasized that they were “the first real Slovenian” artists. At the same time, first Slovenian students were studying art history in Vienna and Graz. In Vienna, Josip Mantuani received his Ph.D. with Franz Wickhoff as advisor in 1894, France Stelè and Izidor Cankar with Max Dvořak in 1912 and 1913, and Vojeslav Molè, also in 1912, with Josef Strzygowski. The latter was also the Doktorvater to Avguštin Stegenšek, who received his Ph.D. in Graz in 1906.

With the end of the World War I, most the Slovenes were united in a new multinational state the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which changed its name in 1929 to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Thus, the provincial institutions established throughout the 19th century were given the role of main national institutions (as was the case of the Provincial Museum of Carniola in Ljubljana which was to become the National Museum of Slovenia); some others, especially the National Gallery, were established after 1918. Art history also obtained one of the first chairs at the new University of Ljubljana, established in 1919. The abovementioned former students from Vienna played key roles in these events: Mantuani was the director of the National Museum, Cankar and Molè became the first professors at the University, and Stelè was the head of the institute for the protection of cultural heritage. The 1920s and 1930s were important (and decisive) years for the further development of the Slovenian art history: apart from the full-time study programme at the university, the professional organization was established (Slovenian association of art historians) as well as the first scientific journal. During this period, theoretical studies on style, as well as surveys of the Slovenian art were published (written by Cankar and Stelè). In his Outline of History of Art of Slovenians of 1924, Stelè tried to answer the question of national elements in the art and architecture of Slovenian territory, and this became one of the issues that dominated the Slovenian art history throughout most of the 20th century. During this period the initially rather wide in terms of subject matter, and theoretically based on the Vienna school, Slovenian art history slowly narrowed itself to local antiquarianism.

During the last decade or two, especially in Central Europe, several conferences addressed the questions of the relationship and interaction between art and art history with politics, ideology, and cultural context. At these occasions, Slovenia usually wasn’t addressed. Our project will therefore focus on analysis of the impact of national discourses on the medieval and early modern art history in Slovenia, esp. early art history studies of present-day territory of the Republic of Slovenia, written in the period of Austria-Hungary, the process of establishing “national” institutions (museums, university) and the development of their programs; the creation of dichotomy between “domestic/Slovenian” and “foreign” art and artists, and of the canon of “Slovenian” art, mostly in the context of scholarly and popular art historical surveys and larger museum exhibitions; different views of Italian, Austrian, Slovenian, Hungarian, and Croatian art historians on art heritage of Istria, and Prekmurje, international activities of art historians from Slovenia.

 

ARRS Code: J6-9387

Period: 1. 7. 2018 – 30. 06. 2021

Project leader: Klemenčič Matej, PhD

Lead partner of the projectUniversity of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Historical Studies

Slovene Women Missionaries in India: A Forgotten Chapter in Intercultural Relations (J6-8258)

This project aims to investigate a totally neglected chapter in the cultural history of the connections between India and East-Central Europe by focusing on the role of Slovene women missionaries in India from pre- and post-World-War-II socialist Yugoslavia. The proposed two-pronged research approach combines historical investigations with a solid theoretical framing. The generated outputs will retrieve a discursive archive and excavate a nexus of knowledge-power relations which have hitherto remained unexamined, subjecting them for the first time to a critical analysis from a multidisciplinary perspective.

 

ARRS CodeJ6-8258

Period: 1. 5. 2017 – 30. 6. 2020

Project leaderAna Jelnikar, PhD

Lead partner of the project: ZRC SAZU

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Philosophical Studies

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Substantive Representation of Youth in Representative Bodies (J5-8241)

Modern democracies are closely related to the principle of representation. Representatives of the people, being individuals or institutions, should reflect the will of the people and organise their activity accordingly. As we have witnessed in the last few years, modern representative democracy is facing numerous challenges and criticisms, all of which have some connection to the question of the quality of representation. Trust in representative institutions as well as satisfaction with the functioning of democracy are extremely low, in some countries even reaching critical levels. Under the strain of this decline of trust in political representatives and institutions of democracy, it is no surprise to hear emerging voices questioning the validity of the contemporary form of representative democracy and even the concept of representative democracy itself. Nevertheless, citizens overwhelmingly still perceive democracy as the best form of government, which indicates the need to improve the current form and make it more responsive to the needs of citizens. Hence, the focus of contemporary debates should be centred around the quality of the current form of political representation, along with considerations of its vulnerability. This is in line with the evidence of misrepresentation of the citizenry in parliaments. The population most affected by this problem and also most hostile to this image of democracy is youth – a population with less than 2 per cent of representatives in national parliaments. The main challenge therefore entails the question of how members of parliament (MPs) understand and perceive their representational roles and, conversely, how citizens perceive MPs’ roles and behaviour. This project shall address two dimensions of representation; the style and focus of observed political representatives, which both have an impact on the characteristics and quality of representation as observed by citizens, primarily youth. Yet it seems more appropriate to talk about role-switching for representatives since they are not necessarily loyal to merely one style and focus of representation but self-perceive their roles as variable. In that sense, the issue of the determinants of those role-takings is crucially important. This research project aims to address the key issues of political representation and the problem of the transmission of citizens’ preferences to MPs and the question of the constraints citizens’ preferences may impose on MPs and their behaviour. We believe it is vital to identify the characteristics of representational roles (in terms of the style and focus of representation) and their determinants in order to combat the crisis of political representation. This may be achieved by implementing the first systematic and in-depth, face-to-face survey conducted among deputies of the National Assembly. Such research will be the first focused and all-embracing step in tackling the crisis of representative democracy in Slovenia. By performing an analysis of available secondary data, we initially aim to detect the main patterns of distrust across time as well as identify parts of the electorate that reveal the lowest trust in the parliament and satisfaction with democracy. This will serve as the basis for public opinion research conducted on the population of youth aged between 15 and 30 that will be proceeded by in-depth interviews with young individuals in order to gain a comprehensive insight into their standpoints and values. This study aims to provide a set of recommendations to address the identified shortcomings: a) a set of institutional changes (structure); and b) a set of recommendations targeting behavioural changes (agency) and ways to induce them.

ARRS CodeJ5-8241

Period: 1. 5. 2017–30. 4. 2020

Project leader: Deželan Tomaž, PhD

Head of the project: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences

Participating institute of ZRS KoperInstitute for Social Studies

FINISHED RESEARCH PROJECTS

Accuracy od Irrigation Forecast - TriN (V4-1609)

Water is an essential resource for crop production. Climate change is causing changed precipitation patterns and, consequently, cause for reflection about the possibilities of crop production in the changed conditions.

Data show that Slovenia has enough rainfall, but because of their uneven distribution, Slovenian area is increasingly vulnerable to drought. In the last 25 years, on average, every third year, we have faced with drought. Projections of climate change and the potential impacts on evapotranspiration and frequency of agricultural droughts are not promising, neither. The lack of rainfall or their irregular timing, already present problem of risk and great drought threat in Slovenia, where the water resources for irrigation of agricultural land are generally limited.

The basis of rational use of water is the appropriate input data, on the basis of which the current model of irrigation projections is formed. There must be a network of measuring devices for the needs of rational irrigation of each culture. In Slovenia, we have little experience with professional correct implementation of irrigation and with irrigation forecast. Optimal irrigation strategy is irrigation, which saves water and increasing the efficiency of its use, while maintaining the quantity and quality of the crop. Upgrading optimal irrigation must be deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation strategy is irrigation, which saves water and increasing the efficiency of its use while maintaining the quantity and quality of the crop. In deficit irrigation plants are kept in a slight stress, thereby improving the response of plants to the weather.

The study will determine the most appropriate approach, based on which we will determine the appropriate time of the start of irrigation. As indicated in the survey of Pintar et al., 2013, users and operators wish improved irrigation prognostic services, such as support for irrigation, to be responsible for the proper control of irrigation.

 

ARRS CodeV4-1609

Period: 1. 10. 2016 – 30. 9. 2018

Project leaderMarina Pintar, PhD

Lead partner of the project: University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Oliveculture

Borders in Arms. Political Violence in the northern Adriatic, 1914-1941 (J6-7152)

This project analyzes forms of political violence by examining its relationship to identity and ideology from a historical perspective in the region of the northern Adriatic that today is shared by Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. The time frame spans from the beginning of World War I in July 1914 to April 1941, when the Italian army invaded neighboring Yugoslavia in World War II.

The Great War and the disappearance of the Habsburg Empire turned the northern Adriatic in a “shatter zone” (Bartov, Weitz), where the ambiguity of the situation created a space without clear and defined state authority. The Austrian Littoral has been replaced by the Italian Venezia Giulia, however this sortie de guerre (Prost) has not been linear. The transition lasted several years and has been characterized by extreme political instability, economic insecurity, military and cultural demobilization of heart and minds (Horne) and it became a laboratory for new forms of military and paramilitary violence (fascist squads). This occurred in the vacuum left by the collapse of the Habsburg Empire, however at the same time violence served as an adjunct to the new State power and its legitimization. Thus, waves of State violence occurred in different forms in the 1920’s and 1930’s and gave rise to forms of counter-violence based on terrorist activity throughout the period under scrutiny. The question of how different societies managed to interact despite volatile and hostile political conditions is of enormous importance to the history of the northern Adriatic region and of Europe in general.

Many important works have contributed to intense historical analysis of this area however, a transnational perspective has only rarely been adopted. Thus we are planning to use interdisciplinary and comparative approaches to study the region as a whole irrespective of its today’s political and administrative division. We believe that is the only way to transcend exclusivist (national) interpretations of the history of the region.

In order to re-think and re-frame the history of violence in the region we will use published and unpublished material. Moreover, the methodology of top-down and bottom-up perspectives will be used, both in analyzing archival documents of State authorities (national archives in Rome, Zagreb, Ljubljana, and local archives in Koper, Trieste, Gorica and Nova Gorica, Rijeka and Pazin) and in analyzing documents produced by non-state actors (biographies of veterans, members of Fascist militia, Slovene terrorist groups – TIGR, etc.).

 

ARRS Code: J6-7152

Period: 1. 1. 2016 – 31. 12. 2018

Project leader: Borut Klabjan, PhD, Senior Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitut for Historical Studies

Assessment of blood parameters and extracellular vesicles for optimization of sport results (J5-7098)

Composition of blood and properties of its constituents importantly influence achievements in sport and also indicate health risks. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are tiny (in the range of 20 nanometers – 1000 nanometers) membrane – enclosed cell fragments which are formed in the last stage of the membrane budding or in cell death. They are shed into extracellular solution and become mobile with body fluids, especially blood. Isolation of EVs from body fluids (especially blood) and their assessment (measuring their concentration and composition) reflects the status of the organism, in particular of the cells in blood, of blood plasma and endothelium.

Knowledge on the impact of specific sport activities connected with results of competitive and recreational sport, on mechanisms connected to EVs is yet rudimentary. It is of interest how different sport regimes (aerobic, anaerobic, intensity, mode and level of competition), environmental factors (hypoxia, temperature, pollution), intake of substances (water, dietary supplements), and physical status (sex, age, body mass index, fat and muscle mass) affect microvesiculation in vitro and ex vivo and what is the relation of these processes to composition of blood.

It is our aim to elaborate a method for following, predicting and optimizing performance in sports, based on assessment of EVs in blood isolates. The method will improve planning of the preparation for sport achievements and minimize the risk for adverse effects such as cardiovascular overload, oxidative stress and thromboembolisms. We will consider some chosen environmental impact factors with special emphasis on nanoparticles, which can cause oxidative stress. Sport results and athletes’ health status will be interpreted in the light of EVbased biomarkers and blood composition. Based on the interaction between EVs and nanoparticles we will design a bionanosensor for assessment of the subject’s status.

We will study acknowledged blood cell parameters (the number of cells of different types, their volume and distribution), cell activation markers, plasma content of growth hormones, cholesterol, inflammation and anti-inflammation markers and and coagulation parameters, by standard methods (flow cytometry and ELISA tests). State of the cholinergic system will be assessed by spectroscopic methods. We will isolate EVs (by centrifugation and washing of samples) and study their concentration in isolates and presence of specific receptors at their surfaces by flow cytometry. The impact of substances and pollutants will be studied through their interaction with blood cells and phospholipid vesicles. Indirect effects such as osmosis and interaction with added substances will be assessed in vitro by different microscopic techniques and flow cytometry and described by theoretical models based on laws of mechanics and thermodynamics. We will study response of competitive and recreational athletes of both sexes on acute aerobic and anaerobic efforts during preparation (also in hot, hypoxic and polluted environment), before and after the representative competition and in the process of regeneration. We will study acute responses to hydration and intake of food supplements. The level of peripheral and central fatigue directly after the effort will be measured with tensiomyographic method.

Based on the support of endogenous mechanisms in athletes we will elaborate and optimize protocols as a base for personalized plan of athlete preparation for achievement of high level results. Results of the study will contribute to a decrease of the risk for adverse effects on athletes’ health. We will improve the method for EV assessment by a protocol as regards water and food supplement intake and instructions on physical activities prior to blood sampling. We will design a bionanosensor for EV assessment.

ARRS CodeJ5-7098

Period: 1. 1. 2016 – 31. 12. 2018

HeadVeronika Kralj Iglič, PhD

Lead partner of the project: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Health Sciences

Participating institute ZRS Koper: Inštitut za kineziološke raziskave

The Return of the Religious in Postmodern Thought as a Challenge for Theology (J6-7325)

In a time of a postmodern and post-secular return of the religious on both the individual and societal levels, this joint Slovenian-Austrian research project aims to be an original contribution towards building a new platform of dialogue between postmodern thinking and theology. Its goal is an identification and analysis of theologically relevant topoi, which this project intends to explore according to three venues of postmodern thought. The first venue includes representatives of French phenomenology (e.g. Levinas, Henry, Marion, Chrétien) who have undertaken within this field the so-called “theological turn,” and have thus revealed new possibilities for the means of relation between philosophy and theology. The second venue of inquiry relates more to hermeneutical thinkers (e.g. Ricoeur, Vattimo, Caputo) who have already initiated dialogue with the biblical religious tradition and thereby demonstrated the potential of postmodernism for theological reflection. The third venue consists of two alternative postmodern approaches, which embody two different orientations. Girard’s anthropological approach returns to Christianity and adopts an affirmative attitude toward it, while on the other hand, Luce Irigaray demands a critical reinterpretation of Christianity from the feminist point of view and calls for a broader notion of religiosity with new topoi of corporeal gestures of proximity and of cosmico-ethical elements.

In the first phase of the project, the research will critically examine different notions of transcendence in relation to the aforementioned postmodern thinkers, who are of crucial importance for a dialogue with Christian theology. The second phase will engage in extrapolating theologically relevant topoi, which will serve as a horizontal connection between different postmodern approaches. Such topoi include, for example, the notions of gift and grace, event and narration, time and messianism, call and response, sensitivity and incarnation, weakness and kenosis, love (caritas) and hospitality. The main quality of this project consists, however, in combining two different approaches. The inquiry into postmodern thinking will not investigate only its relevance for theology (ad intra), but will also inquire into the presence of – often not reflected – religious elements on the societal level and to identify religious topoi in our post-secular society (ad extra). The Austrian partner will explore the potential of the theological turn in phenomenology for a post-secular political philosophy and thereby contribute to a better understanding of the postmodern status of religion in society. The synergy of both approaches (ad intra and ad extra) and the mutual relevance of the research results will provide a basis for new possibilities of dialogue between theology and secular thought, and between religion and society. Thus, it will contribute to overcoming the modern Enlightenment paradigm of separation between religion and society, which often amounts to an exclusion of religion from society, and will move toward a new culture of coexistence and mutual respect.

ARRS CodeJ6-7325

Period: 1. 1. 2016 – 31. 12. 2018

Project leaderBranko Klun, PhD

Lead partner of the projectUniversity of Ljubljana, Faculty of Theology

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Philosophical Studies

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Yugoslav Self-Management Experiment and the Discussion on Development of European Socialism between East and West (1950-1980) (N6-0039)

Projekt je namenjen ponovnemu premisleku o jugoslovanskem sistemu socialističnega samoupravljanja v mednarodni in transnacionalni perspektivi. V obdobju po sporu z Informbirojem je jugoslovanski sistem soočil različne akterje in tradicije evropske levičarske misli: na eni strani so ga zahodni levičarski krogi dojemali kot laboratorij demokratičnega socializma, na drugi pa je za vzhodnoevropske politike in intelektualce predstavljal model upora sovjetski hegemoniji. Analiza procesa nastanka in razvoja jugoslovanskega sistema samoupravljanja ponuja priložnost vpogleda v transnacionalno teoretsko-konceptualno in politično interakcijo, ki je v času hladne vojne prestopala meje med Vzhodom in Zahodom in odprla vprašanja združevanja načel liberalne demokracije in marksizma-leninizma, hkrati pa je razkrila tudi demokratične deficite enopartijskega sistema v Jugoslaviji.

Obravnava teoretske in politične interakcije, ki je prišla do izraza v okviru jugoslovanskega socialističnega eksperimenta, bo razdeljena na tri med seboj prepletene sklope:

1) Laboratorij politične inovacije: izvori, konstrukcija in mednarodni vplivi samoupravnega socializma;

2) Odpiranje različnih poti v socializem: Jugoslavija in mednarodno delavsko gibanje;

3) Jugoslavija kot prostor mednarodnega intelektualnega srečevanja: kritike institucionalnega in perspektive demokratičnega socializma.

Raziskava se bo oprla na izvirno arhivsko gradivo iz arhivov nekdanjih jugoslovanskih republik, Nemčije, Švedske, Norveške, Velike Britanije, Italije, Rusije idr. Vključevala bo metode transnacionalne zgodovine idej in diplomatske zgodovine. Medtem ko se bo analizi vloge nedržavnih faktorjev v procesu razvijanja jugoslovanskega socialističnega eksperimenta približala z uporabo transnacionalnih zgodovinopisnih pristopov, bodo vloga držav in oblasti ter razmerja moči obravnavana z metodami diplomatske zgodovine.

Temeljni cilj projekta je predstaviti posledice medsebojnih prenosov in vplivov politične misli in prakse, ki jo je na mednarodni ravni sprožil jugoslovanski samoupravni eksperiment, ter odgovoriti na vprašanje, kako je ta prispeval k teoriji demokratičnega socializma, pravičnejše svetovne ekonomske ureditve, ohranjanja miru in drugih še danes aktualnih izzivov.

ARRS Code: N6-0039

Period: 1. 7. 2015 – 31. 8. 2018

Project leader: Acad. Jože Pirjevec, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitut for Historical Studies

Tripoint over Time: the Case of Linguistic Intertwining in the Slovene, Austrian and Italian Borderland (N6-0036)

The proposed project is set in the context of audio-visual recording of Slovene dialects and vernaculars in the linguistically diverse Alpine Adriatic Tripoint area lying at the juncture of Slavic, Romance and Germanic world. This remarkable example of different languages and dialects coexistence and rich cultural heritage remained fairly unexplored from the linguistic, especially lexical, point of view. With the aim of preserving the marvelous cultural heritage of the area, this project research seeks to use the gathered vocabulary to reconstruct the story of local people.

The project goals include: (1) dialectological field research in five research points of the Tripoint area (Log pod Mangartom in Posočje Valley, Ugovizza in Valcanale Valley, Rateče in Zgornjesavska Valley, Ahomitz and Feistritz in Gailtail Valley); (2) production of a visual film documentation with ethnological content and a demonstration of the Tripoint vernaculars which are daily subjected to interference influences in the multilingual environment; (3) textual appendix with a phonological transcription of film recordings together with their translation into standard languages (Slovene, Italian, English); (4) preparation of a book edition of the Slovene Dialectological Lexical Atlas of the Tripoint SDLA-TRIP I based on the gathered field material.

 

ARRS CodeN6-0036

Period: 1. 9. 2015 – 31. 8. 2018

Project leaderRada Cossutta, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Linguistic Studies

Vsakdanje religiozne prakse in konvertitstvo na Slovenskem (1918-1941) - (Z7-7006)

Evidenčna številka ARRSZ7-7006

Obdobje: 01. 01. 2016 – 31. 12. 2017

Vodja: dr. Gašper Mithans, znanstveni sodelavec

Sodelujoči inštitut ZRS Koper: Inštitut za zgodovinske študije

V Kraljevini SHS/Jugoslaviji se srečajo religije ter pravne ureditve različnih ozadij in tradicij. Kot ključni nosilec »starega reda« je Rimskokatoliška cerkev (RKC) v slovenskem delu Jugoslavije vzdrževala svoj dominanten položaj, ki pa je bil soočen z multikonfesionalnostjo nove države. Zaradi splošnega konservatizma in gospodarske zaostalosti kraljevine je bil proces modernizacije v novem državnem okvirju upočasnjen. Na ta proces so se različne skupine znotraj slovenske RKC odzivale različno, kar je razbilo njeno politično enotnost. Da bi te posebnosti lahko analizirati in priskrbeli raziskave, ki bodo primerljive s študijami o stanju v drugih regijah Evrope, je potrebno primerjati odnose med različnimi verskimi skupnosti v tem prostoru ter zgodovinske kontekste različnih evropskih regij.
Projekt je razdeljen na tri tematske sklope:
V prvem sklopu se bo na raziskalo mehanizme in relacije moči med glavnimi akterji na religioznem polju na Slovenskem v času med svetovnima vojnama. V tem oziru projekt izhaja iz  problematizacijo Bourdieujeve konceptualizacije religioznega polja (simbolna dimenzija).
Drugi sklop bo dopolnil predhodne ugotovitve s študijo neposrednih in posrednih interakcij med laiki in »religioznimi specialisti« na primeru večinske verske skupnosti (katolikov). Pri tej analizi je poudarek na družbenih odnosih in vsakdanjih religioznih praksah (družbena dimenzija). Oba teoretsko zasnovana sklopa bosta priskrbela teoretskokonceptualni okvir za zadnji sklop.
V okviru študije primera verskega konvertitstva in medverskih odnosov na Slovenskem v obdobju med svetovnima vojnama se bo raziskalo fenomen verskega konvertitstva, pri čemer se bo sledilo novejšemu trendu v zgodovini in antropologiji, ki poudarja mnoštvo družbenih identitet. Z raziskavami kulturnih transferjev verskih prestopov lahko razkrijemo pomembne vidike transformacij, kontinuitet in transmisij v večkulturni družbi.
Temeljni cilji raziskave so:
– izdelava teoretskokonceptualnega okvirja za analizo »strategij« in »taktik« na religioznem polju;
– delovna definicija termina laik v ožjem in širšem pomenu;
– prepoznava in definiranje različnih tipov verskega konvertitstva;
– analiza izbranih »konvertitov« ter odzivov verskih skupnosti na prestope.
Z upoštevanjem nacionalnega (slovenskega) in širše regionalnega (Jugovzhodna Evropa) zgodovinskega konteksta se bo modificiralo ter kritično reflektiralo neustrezno rabo »zahodnih« konceptov. Tako se bo opravilo prve pertinentne raziskave konvertitstva v tem prostoru.
Z zgodovinskoantropološkim znanstvenim aparatom se bo opravilo arhivsko raziskavo (Nadškofijski arhiv Ljubljana, Nadškofijski arhiv Maribor, Arhiv Republike Slovenije, Zgodovinski arhiv Celje, Zgodovinski arhiv Ljubljana, Zgodovinski arhiv Ptuj, Archivio diocesano di Trieste, Arhiv Srbske pravoslavne cerkvene občine Ljubljana idr.), krajše terensko delo namenjeno zbiranju gradiva ter diskurzivno analizo izbranih tekstov. Obravnavalo se bo tudi naracije skozi (avto)biografske vire, določene osebne zapuščine, časopise in vizualni material. Ker raziskave konvertitstva v precejšnji meri temeljijo na t.i. ego-dokumentih, se bo tem namenilo posebno metodološko obravnavo. Fokus pri vseh analizah virov bo na njihovem kritičnem branju z upoštevanjem režimov zgodovinskosti.

Establishment of technological guidelines for irrigation of olives in Slovenia (V4-1411)

In the last years the Slovenian olive growers and producers have faced problems to achieve constant yields and quality of olive oil due to the extreme weather conditions, especially because of the more frequent occurrence of the drought. In such situations they often irrigate by employing the principle of “crisis irrigation”. Numerous studies performed in the Mediterranean region have shown that for the cultivation of olive trees in areas where the water resources are extremely limited it is appropriate to use the principle of “deficient irrigation”. Despite of the smaller amount of water added compared to the optimal amount it is in this way possible to increase the productivity of the plants and at the same time provide a higher quality of olive oil and a better and sustainable use of water resources. However, the optimal amount of water in the irrigation treatment is very difficult to predict.

The aims of the research project are: 1) to study the impact of water stress on growth and fertility of olive trees and to determine the optimal irrigation treatment in each phenological period based on the results of monitoring of various agronomic characteristics and physiological parameters of olive trees, 2) to assess the impact of irrigation system on the quality and sensorial characteristics of olive oil with determination of primary metabolites of photosynthesis (sugars, sugar alcohols) and secondary metabolites (biophenols), 3) to study the biomarkers in association with the olive trees response to drought stress, 4) to determine the optimal irrigation treatment based on the results obtained in the study. The final aim of the project is to prepare technical guidelines for national strategy for irrigation of olive trees providing a good balance between size and quality of the crop and sustainable use of water resources. In this project we are going to monitor the weather conditions and the phenological development stages of the olive trees depending on the irrigation treatment at the olive grove trial.

 

ARRS CodeV4-1411

Period: 1. 7. 2014 – 30. 11. 2017

HeadBojan Butinar, PhD, Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Oliveculture

Kraji spomina, kraji meje: spomin in identiteta na slovensko-italijanskem mejnem območju v dolgem dvajsetem stoletju (J6-6833)

Evidenčna številka ARRS: J6-6833

Obdobje: 1. 7. 2014 – 30. 6. 2017

Vodja: dr. Borut Klabjan, višji znanstveni sodelavec

Sodelujoči inštitut ZRS KoperInštitut za zgodovinske študije

Preučevano območje krajev spomina bo prostor slovensko-italijanske meje, na katerem so, za razliko od drugih evropskih regij, vprašanja politike in spomina zanemarjena. Projekt bo skušal združiti orodja raznorodnih disciplin, s katerimi bi se rad približal odgovorom na vprašanja o razumevanju kulture spomina, komemoracije in politike spomina. Kako se prepletajo, oblikujejo in prekrivajo na obmejnih območjih?

Od začetka dvajsetega stoletja dalje je bila obmejna regija podvržena rednim spremembam meja in državnih sistemov. Kako so zaradi različnih sovražnih ali ohlapnih političnih razmer sodelovale različne družbe, je vprašanje, ki ima za zgodovino regije velik pomen. Hkrati gre za vprašanje evropske in globalne zgodovine: na tem območju so bile začrtane močne simbolne meje, ki so vplivale na oblikovanje mentalnega zemljevida Evrope: Zahod proti Vzhodu, latinski proti slovanskemu svetu, Evropa proti Orientu, antifašizem proti fašizmu, demokracija proti komunizmu. Prav to definira slovensko-italijansko mejo za idealno regijo za študijo primera, ki ima velik evropski pomen.

K zgodovinski analizi območja so prispevala številna pomembna dela, pri čemer velja opomniti, da je bil le redko upoštevan transnacionalni vidik. Zato načrtujemo uporabo interdisciplinarnih in primerjalnih pristopov za študij regije kot celote, ne glede na njeno današnjo politično in administrativno delitev. Verjamemo, da je to edini način za preseganje izključujočih (nacionalnih) interpretacij.

Za izvedbo tega pristopa predlagamo naslednje med seboj povezane študije primerov:

  • Imperialni kraji spomina, ki so nastali pred 1. svetovno vojno (npr. spomeniki habsburškim vladarjem in spomeniki, povezani z vladajočo dinastijo);
  • Kraji spomina prve svetovne vojne, ki so bili postavljeni v dvajsetih in tridesetih letih. (npr. spominski parki v Gorici in Trstu, kostnice v Sredipolju in Kobaridu);
  • Tržaški Narodni dom kot kraj spomina;
  • Sakralna umetnost lokalnih cerkva kot kraj spomina;
  • Kraji spomina druge svetovne vojne (npr. spomeniki partizanskemu gibanju, koncentracijsko taborišče Rižarna in druga taborišča na omenjenem ozemlju, denimo Gonars in Visco);
  • Bazovica kot kraj razdeljenega spomina;
  • Kraji spomina “obmejnega potrošništva” (npr. Ponterosso v Trstu);
  • Kraji spomina obmejnega sodelovanja (npr. iniciativa za odprto mejo kot kraj spomina na najbolj odprto mejo razdeljene Evrope);
  • Regionalni muzeji kot kraji javnega spomina (npr.  Museo della civiltà Istriana, fiumana e dalmata in Museo del Risorgimento v Trstu, regionalna muzeja v Kopru in Novi Gorici itd.).

V svojih analizah bomo uporabili že objavljeno in še neobjavljeno gradivo. Še več, metodologija top-down in bottom-up bo uporabljena za analizo arhivskih dokumentov državnih oblasti (državni arhiv v Rimu, Ljubljani, na Dunaju ter lokalni arhivi v Kopru, Trstu in Gorici) in medijev. Pozornost bo namenjena tudi ustni zgodovini in antropološkim metodam.

Raziskovalna skupina je sestavljena iz uveljavljenih profesorjev, izkušenih raziskovalcev (4-10 let po doktoratu) in štirih mladih raziskovalcev. Je interdisciplinarna in interinstitucionalna.

Oblikovan bo tudi mednarodni svetovalni odbor, ki ga bodo sestavljali Nancy Wingfield, Sabine Rutar, Vanni D’Alessio in Katia Pizzi.

Diseminacijska strategija vključuje merila, ki bodo poskrbela za objavo izsledkov projekta v ustreznih raziskovalnih razpravah – v obliki knjige in/ali člankov v slovenskih in tujih strokovnih publikacijah, na gostujočih predavanjih in konferencah. Za širitev projekta v ne-akademsko skupnosti načrtujemo spletno stran in oblikovanje ter predvajanje radijskih oddaj.

Rezultati se bodo zrcalili tudi v učnem procesu na univerzitetni ravni, pa tudi kot delavnice za srednješolske učitelje.

Slovenski diplomati in zunanjepolitični vidiki osamosvajanja Republike Slovenije, 1980-1992 (J6-6832)

Evidenčna številka ARRSJ6-6832

Obdobje: 1. 7. 2014 – 30. 6. 2017

Vodja: akad. dr. Jože Pirjevec, znanstveni svetnik

Sodelujoči inštitut ZRS KoperInštitut za zgodovinske študije

Namen projekta je sistematična analiza in historična rekonstrukcija delovanja slovenskih diplomatov in drugih zunanjepolitičnih akterjev v kontekstu razkrajanja avtoritarnega sistema in jugoslovanske federacije ter velikih sprememb v mednarodni politiki v obdobju 1980–1992. Čeprav gre za prelomno obdobje razpadanja Jugoslavije in osamosvajanja Slovenije, so bili, v nasprotju z notranjepolitičnimi in obrambnimi aspekti, zunanjepolitični vidiki nastajanja nove države doslej raziskani le na splošni, pregledni ravni. Projekt se umešča v kontekst preučevanja diplomatske zgodovine, ki se šele v zadnjih letih konstituira kot samostojna smer znotraj slovenskega zgodovinopisja. Hkrati pomeni nadaljevanje sistematične raziskave sodobne slovenske diplomatske zgodovine v okviru projekta Slovenci v jugoslovanski diplomaciji in v zunanjepolitičnem delovanju 1941–1980, ki ga od leta 2011 izvajamo na UP ZRS v Kopru. Čeprav je bilo naslednje obdobje od 1980 do 1992 prelomno, so dosedanje znanstvene raziskave zunanjepolitičnih vidikov osamosvajanja Slovenije omejene le na glavne diplomatske poteze slovenskega vodstva v letu 1991, medtem ko so republiške zunanjepolitične pobude v osemdesetih letih skoraj povsem spregledane. Poleg tega je v sicer številnih tujih znanstvenih delih, ki obravnavajo odnos zunanjih sil do razdružitve Jugoslavije, dogajanje v Sloveniji v senci vojn na Hrvaškem in v BiH ter največkrat obravnavano obrobno ali kot predmet posameznih razprav.

Vsebinsko je projekt razdeljen na tri med seboj povezane sklope:

  1. Republiška zunanjepolitična pobuda v osemdesetih letih;
  2. Oblikovanje zunanje politike samostojne države;
  3. Odnos velikih sil do Jugoslavije in njene razdružitve.

Raziskava bo temeljila na kritični analizi in interpretaciji zgodovinskih virov in relevantne literature, njen izvirni del pa se bo opiral predvsem na arhivske in ustne vire, z zbiranjem katerih imajo sodelujoči raziskovalci že veliko izkušenj iz dosedanjega projekta. V zvezi z razpadanjem Jugoslavije in osamosvajanjem Slovenije sta projektni vodja in projektni partner že objavila temeljni referenčni deli (J. Pirjevec, Le guerre jugoslave 1991–1999, 2001; B. Repe, Jutri je nov dan: Slovenci in razpad Jugoslavije, 2002), ki na pregledni ravni obravnavata tudi nekatere zunanjepolitične aspekte tega procesa. Projektna skupina se bo zato osredotočila na manj znana ozadja oblikovanja diplomatske mreže nove države, dvojno funkcijo Slovencev v jugoslovanskem diplomatskem korpusu, odnose z drugimi jugoslovanskimi republikami, vlogo srednjeevropskih držav v prizadevanjih za mednarodno priznanje Slovenije idr. Republiške zunanjepolitične pobude v osemdesetih letih in diplomatski vidiki osamosvajanja Slovenije bodo rekonstruirani na podlagi domačih in tujih arhivskih virov ter ustnih pričevanj, raziskava odnosa velikih sil do Jugoslavije in njene razdružitve pa se bo pretežno opirala na dostopne vire v tujini (Washington, Pariz, Berlin idr.), ki so jih projektni sodelavci v precejšnji meri že evidentirali, dopolnila pa jih bodo tudi ustna pričevanja. Projektne aktivnosti bodo trdno izhodišče za vključitev sodelujočih raziskovalcev v širšo razpravo o zunanjepolitičnih vidikih razpadanja Jugoslavije in posledično za večjo prepoznavnost in primerljivost slovenske historiografije.

Between Politics and Ethics: Towards A New World Culture of Hospitality and Non-violence (J6-5565)

The aim of this project was to establish a new platform for philosophical thinking of intersubjectivity and interculturality and to awaken contemporary philosophy towards a more sensitive approach towards hospitality as needed in our times. In the first part, the proposed project addressed the problem of the many layers of violence inherent in a variety of Western philosophical theories pertaining to ethics and political philosophy. The project critically examined the major theories and theoreticians of violence to suggest it is within the notion of ethical intersubjectivity (as proposed by Levinas, Derrida, Irigaray and others) that a search for a new platform of thinking about non-violence can begin. Having this aim, the project then introduced the concept of hospitality as a bridge towards a new ethics of intersubjectivity. By analysing selected philosophical discourses from different world cultures and world philosophies (Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Daoism, Confucianism) the project team finally proposed a new world culture of hospitality and non-violence, having a potential for conflict resolution at personal, social and political levels.

ARRS CodeJ6-5565

Period: 1. 8. 2013 – 31. 7. 2016

HeadLenart Škof, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating instituteInstitute for Philosophical Studies

Slovene National Identity in the Light of Tourist Discourse (J6-5560)

Nowadays, the global market pushes the national and the regional area towards greater recognisability. The public debate in Slovenia has pointed at the low identification level of the population of Slovenia with elements of Slovene culture, and therefore a weaker recognisability of Slovenia in the international environment. This leads to a dispersion of social objectives which guide the economic and general social development, although the Development Strategy for Slovenia defines identity, recognisability and reputation of the country in the international environment as the developmental strategic goal of Slovenia. Also, some results taken from the Marketing Strategy of Slovene Tourism 2007-2011 state that Slovene tourism does not have a clearly defined message and identity, and does not have a recognisable story or benefits related to it. Similarly, the “Proposal for the Development Strategy of Slovene Tourism 2012-2016” defines as one of the main substantive goals the visibility of Slovenia in the world.

On the basis of common agreement, expressed in discourse, national communities choose those national attributes that represent their permanent identification within its borders as well as in relation to other countries. This means they accept them as values that define it as a national community and guide its social development, while making use of them as elements of international recognisability, also for tourist promotion. This holds true especially in the contemporary processes of constant contact between languages and cultures, accelerating the formation of ideas about a community’s national identity. In tourism, this is reflected in the so-called country branding, i.e. the formation of a brand of a country as a tourist destination.

The objective of the research is to shed light on the construction of Slovene national identity, using the example of tourist texts, and to point at their influence on the representation of national identity in general. With this aim, an interdisciplinary (linguistic, historical, geographical, sociological) analysis of documents, linguistic and discourse analysis in the Multilingual Corpus of Tourist Texts and other tourist texts and an analysis of results of a public opinion poll will be carried out. On this basis, key attributes of Slovene national identity will be identified and a strategy for their dissemination in public will be prepared, with special emphasis on the young generations. The ultimate aim of the project is to produce long-term strategic development guidelines of the country, related to its national attributes, and communication strategies for the promotion of national attributes in the international arena.

The results of the project can, in this respect, be divided into three categories:
a) completed interdisciplinary analysis of documents, linguistic and discursive analysis of the TURK multilingual corpus and other tourist texts, analysis of the results of opinion polls,

b) identification of key national attributes of Slovenia at the beginning of the 21st century, including a strategy for their promotion and dissemination to the public, as well as further monitoring of its development,

c) the creation of long-term strategic guidelines for social development and design of communication strategies for the promotion of national attributes in the international arena.

The project results will represent the basis for strategic decisions and decisions on the design of social policies and will therefore form the basis for long-term prosperity and sustainable development of Slovenia. The project results will also have a direct impact both on increasing the competitiveness and social cohesion of Slovenia. This is particularly important in the current circumstances of social and economic crisis, when saving is necessary, but so is planning long-term economic growth. The devised methods will enable longitudinal monitoring of the development of Slovene national attributes.

 

ARRS Code:  J6-5560

Period: 1. 8. 2013 – 31. 7. 2016

Project leaderVesna Mikolič, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Linguistic Studies

Obmejni fašizem - socialna in kulturna zgodovina fašizma na Primorskem (J5-5551)

Evidenčna številka ARRSJ5-5551

Obdobje: 1. 8. 2013 – 31. 7. 2016

Vodja: dr. Egon Pelikan, znanstveni svetnik

Sodelujoči inštitut ZRS KoperInštitut za zgodovinske študije

Raziskovalni projekt »Obmejni fašizem« – Socialna in kulturna zgodovina« se bo usmeril v malo raziskovano področje – v kulturno in socialno zgodovino fašizma v Julijski krajini. Analiziral bo prakse, ki so zaznamovale področje novih provinc in so z ideološko markacijo oblikovale obmejni prostor v družbenem, kulturnem, urbanem, arhitekturnem, krajinskem, infrastrukturnem smislu.

V Julijski krajini sta v času med obema vojnama ideologija in posledično politična praksa fašizma »mutirali« v posebno obliko, v t. i. »obmejni fašizem« ((»fascismo di confine«).
Posebnost fašizma v »novo priključenih provincah« (t. i. »provincie nuove«) definira nekakšna »dvojna usmeritev«, saj je tu prepoznaval dva sočasna nasprotnika: v podobi slovanskih/slovenskih in hrvaških( nacionalnih nasprotnikov.

Pred režim se je z realnostjo na novo priključenih avstro-ogrskih dežel postavljalo vprašanje, kakšna naj bo celotna podoba »novih provinc«, ki jih je bilo po politični (formalni) priključitvi zdaj potrebno »vključiti« ne le v državni okvir, temveč tudi v novo ideološko realnost fašizma: kulturno, socialno, krajinsko, arhitekturno, infrastrukturno, gospodarsko itn.

Režim je zato (glede na druge dele države) deloval na politični ravni posebej izostreno na ideološki pa specifično, v dveh smereh – »navzven« (uradno).

To je vodilo v poudarjen ideološki nastop fašizma v Julijski krajini, ki je postala »izložbeno okno« ideoloških prvin režima – za »tujerodce« na eni in za mednarodno javnost na drugi. Še bolj kakor drugje v Italiji je režim zato v Julijski krajini nastopal (na eni strani v »lepi podobi«.

Področja raziskav so naslednja:

  1. Vloga državnih ustanov
  2. Vloga represivnega
  3. Ideologizacija družabnih dogodkov
  4. Imagologija – podoba »drugega«
  5. Markacija okolja s fašistično ideologijo in ideološka govorica v urbanem okolju
  6. »Romanizacija« Cerkve v Julijski krajini;
  7. Prodor ideologije v področje zasebnega
  8. Študije spolov

Interdisciplinarna metodologija vključuje analizo diskurzivnih praks, imagologijo, ikonografijo, onomastiko, zbiranje in analizo ustnih pričevanj, kakor tudi  klasično metodologijo dela z arhivskimi viri. Raziskava učinkov ideologije in politike v prostoru bo, ob upoštevanju slovenske, italijanske ter druge tuje literature, vodila v večplastno predstavitev »podobe Julijske krajine« v času fašizma.

Definition of non-invasive Method for Quantification of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: from Validation to Application (L5-5550)

Modern analysis of human working and living environment and of the most common causes of injuries and illnesses report 25% of incidence of muscle pain. In 49% the damage of musculoskeletal system causes the absence from work and as many as 60% causes sustained injuries. In the growing physical inactivity rate maintaining muscle mass is crucial to human health.

Muscle atrophy is a well known phenomenon that defines the loss of muscle volume, as a result of illness or injury, unbalanced diet or lack of physical activity. Despite a number of researches exploring the findings of muscle atrophy and analyzing its implications, there are still many unresolved issues, especially in terms of objective indicators, methods and procedures of assessment. Today’s procedures are complex, less sensitive, especially outside clinical cases, when it is important to detect even the slightest changes.

In 1978, the relationship between the mechanical force response and neuromuscular electrical activity was proposed as an objective assessment method and as a measure of electromechanical efficiency. Due to the low sensitivity this method had very limited practical use. The essential shift took place in 1990 when the lateral vibrations of muscle fibers, instead of force, in the same ratio were studied and thus more appropriate assessment procedure for monitoring muscular atrophy was developed. Soon, the researchers again encountered barriers. Too low sensitivity and repeatability limited the use of the method only to severe clinical cases and chronic diseases. The idea of a non-invasive marker for assessing muscular atrophy has remained unstudied and abandoned to this day.

In 1997 the Slovenian scientific space contributed significantly to this goal. The difficulties of assessment procedures and sensors measuring transversal mechanical muscle belly deformations (accelerometer, microphone, laser beam) were overcome by the proposed displacement sensor. The sensor presses the muscle belly through controlled contact and thus increases geometrical difference between relaxed and contracted muscle. This results in non-invasive and selective method, which is characterized by high sensitivity and repeatability. The method of monitoring the radial muscle belly movement has been validated, tested and patented.

At the same time the method for detection of the surface neuromuscular electrical activity was upgraded and since 2004 it has allowed 2D monitoring of skeletal muscle on its whole surface and depth. In Slovenia patented method for decomposition of motor unit action potentials enables decomposition of the surface electromyogram and with it identification of the active motor units, recruitment assessment, muscle fatigue, etc.

The main objective of the proposed project is to define and develop non-invasive procedure for assessing skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy and to improve the current assessment procedures of muscular adaptation. Based on the mechanical response thickening, movement, vibration of muscle fibers as well as neuromuscular electrical activity, we will define the appropriate marker. Indirect objectives are aimed at modelling temporal dynamics of muscle adaptation on physical inactivity, aging, exercise, and rehabilitation after knee/hip artheroplasty. By developing the provided marker of muscle adaptation we will add a new service – test.

The project will be conducted in accordance with the rules of carrying out experiments on human; with the permission granted by ethics commission, consents of the participants and in accordance with the rules of the Declaration of Helsinki. Upon successful completion of the project we anticipate a patents application, publication of several scientific articles, two PhD theses, and the creation of appropriate education program.

 

ARRS CodeL5-5550

Period: 1. 8. 2013 – 31. 7. 2016

Project leaderBoštjan Šimunič, PhD, Principal Research Fellow

Participating institute ZRS KoperInstitute for Kinesiology Research